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Brief Description of Research

The CANDOUR project conducts global research on issues related to health, economics, and politics. CANDOUR was initiated in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. It began initially as a national representative survey of twelve countries. Results from the study informed the COVID-19 vaccine allocation policy making process by identifying public preferences for the prioritization of COVID-19 vaccines. The study results have been published in leading scientific journals including Nature Medicine, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences and Health Economics.

CANDOUR is currently conducting the second-year panel of the initial COVID-19 survey – in this 2022 round there will be 18 countries surveyed. A focus of the CANDOUR team over the past year has been implementing experiments designed to assess the impact of financial incentives on the uptake of the COVID-19 vaccines. An online field experiment conducted in the Spring, 2021 in the U.S. found that financial incentives., as opposed to standard health messaging, generated more interest in getting the vaccine. The CANDOUR team is currently conducting a large-scale Random Control Trial in rural Ghana, with over 7,000 subjects, estimating the impact of financial incentives on actual COVID-19 vaccine update.

The team of scholars participating in the CANDOUR projects, described in the Team tab, have stellar international reputations for the design and implementation of experimental studies concerning preferences and behaviour related to health, economics, and politics.

The CANDOUR projects have been supported by grants from the National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Centre at the University of Oxford, the EuroQol Research Foundation, Innovations for Poverty Action (IPA), Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science, and International Decision Support Initiative.

The Project Team

Professors Philip Clarke and Ray Duch are the Principal Investigators on the CANDOUR Project. The current team of scholars collaborating on the project include the following:

Research Associates
Professor Philip Clarke
Professor Philip Clarke

Health Economics Research Centre

Nuffield Department of Population Health

Ray Duch
Ray Duch

Nuffield College

University of Oxford

Peter Loewen
Peter Loewen

Munk School of Global Affairs & Public Policy

University of Toronto

Thomas Robinson
Thomas Robinson

Durham University

Laurence Roope
Laurence Roope

Nuffield Department of Population Health

University of Oxford

Mara Violato
Mara Violato

Nuffield Department of Population Health

University of Oxford

Thomas Rouyard
Thomas Rouyard

Hitotsubashi Institute for Advanced Study

Hitotsubashi University

Sonja Vogt
Sonja Vogt

Faculty of Business and Economics

University of Lausanne

Alexey Zakharov
Alexey Zakharov

Higher School of Economics

National Research University

Edward Asiedu
Edward Asiedu

University of Ghana Business School

Mariana Blanco
Mariana Blanco

Facultad de Economia

Universidad del Rosario

Bogota

Jean-Francois Bonnefon
Jean-Francois Bonnefon

Toulouse School of Economics

Toulouse

Julia Seither
Julia Seither

Facultad de Economia

Universidad del Rosario

Bogota

Jorge Friedman
Jorge Friedman

Faculty of Administration and Economics

University of Santiago Chile

Juan Vargas
Juan Vargas

Facultad de Economia

Universidad del Rosario

Bogota

Alessia Melegaro
Alessia Melegaro

University of Bocconi

Milan

Pavan Mamidi
Pavan Mamidi

Center for Social and Behavioral Change

New Delhi, Delhi, India

Carlos Yevenes
Carlos Yevenes

University of Santiago Chile

Ryota Nakamura
Ryota Nakamura

Hitotsubashi Institute for Advanced Study

Hitotsubashi University

Pre- and Post-Docs
Maciej Filipek
Maciej Filipek

Vienna

Matias Fuentes
Matias Fuentes

Chile

Ariel Ignacio
Ariel Ignacio

USACH

Zachary Abel
Zachary Abel

University of Oxford

Yuki Atsusaka
Yuki Atsusaka

Rice University

Ahra Wu
Ahra Wu

Hamilton College

An Jimenez
An Jimenez

MIT

Administration
Carmen Paz Lara
Carmen Paz Lara
Melanie Sawers
Melanie Sawers

Current Projects

➤ CANDOUR II

Identities, Global COVID-19 Pandemic and National Cooperation

This pre-registration report set out an analysis plan for the public goods game experiment embedded within the second wave of COVID-19 vaccine preference and Opinion Survey (or CANDOUR II study). The study involves a sample of 1200 residents from each of 18 countries interviewed via an anonymous online survey. The purpose of this document is to outline analyses plans after pilot testing, but prior to analysis of the data.

COVID-19: Global Responsibility Attribution

This pre-registration report set out an analysis plan for the COVID-19 vaccine preference and Opinion Survey (or CANDOUR study). This is the second wave of the CANDOUR study (CANDOUR Wave II). The study involves samples of residents from each of 18 countries who were selected to reflect the population distribution on key socio-economic variables: age, gender, income, education, and region. In each country we interview between 1200 respondents via an anonymous online survey. The online conjoint survey experiment is designed to assess the factors that shape how global citizens hold their elected officials responsible for COVID-19- related outcomes.

COVID-19 Reshaping Global Economic Preferences

This pre-registration report sets out a plan for the analysis of the effect of exposure to COVID-19 on economic and redistribution preferences. Data for the observational study will begathered within the second wave of COVID-19 vaccine preference and opinion survey (or CANDOUR study) that will involve a sample of 1200 residents from each of 19 countries interviewedvia an anonymous online survey. The purpose of this document is to outline analyses plans afterpilot testing, but prior to analysis of the data.


➤ Ghana Vaccine Incentive

Ghana COVID-19 Vaccinations and Financial Incentives

Achieving global vaccination against COVID-19 is a critical worldwide challenge. While COVAX is planning mass vaccination of Africa in 2022, there are substantial challenges. Cash incentives have been proposed as a way to improve the efficiency and equity of the roll-out in Africa. Recent experimental evidence suggests that financial incentives can promote the adoption of preventive health habits (Hussam etal 2022) and more specifically vaccine uptake (Campos Mercade etal 2021). To evaluate whether cash incentives affect the willingness to get the COVID-19 vaccine, we are undertaking a field experiment, designed and conducted in consultation with the University of Ghana and the Ghana Health Service. The experiment will evaluate the impact of cash incentives on vaccine uptake.

➤ Articles

Logo: Nature Medicine
A randomized controlled trial to test financial incentives for COVID-19 vaccination in Ghana

Raymond Duch, Edward Asiedu, Ryota Nakamura, Thomas Rouyard, Carlos Yevenes, Laurence Roope, Mara Violato, and Philip Clarke
June 16, 2022

Logo: Poverty Action - IPA
Vacunación contra el COVID-19 en Colombia: opinión pública sobre su priorización y distribución

Juan Vargas (Universidad del Rosario), Raymond Duch (Universidad de Oxford), Shana Warren (IPA Global), Margarita Cabra (IPA Colombia), Ana María Díaz (DNP)

Logo: PNAS
Citizens from 13 countries share similar preferences for COVID-19 vaccine allocation priorities

Raymond Duch, Laurence S. J. Roope, Mara Violato, Matias Fuentes Becerra, Thomas S. Robinson, Jean-Francois Bonnefon, Jorge Friedman, Peter John Loewen, Pavan Mamidi, Alessia Melegaro, Mariana Blanco, Juan Vargas, Julia Seither, Paolo Candio, Ana Gibertoni Cruz, Xinyang Hua, Adrian Barnett, and Philip M. Clarke
September 21, 2021

Logo: BioMed Central
Lessons from the pandemic on the value of research infrastructure

Laurence S. J. Roope, Paolo Candio, Vasiliki Kiparoglou, Helen McShane, Raymond Duch & Philip M. Clarke
April 1, 2021

Logo: Nature Medicine
Public opinion on global rollout of COVID-19 vaccines

Philip M. Clarke, Laurence S. J. Roope, Peter John Loewen, Jean-Francois Bonnefon, Alessia Melegaro, Jorge Friedman, Mara Violato, Adrian Barnett & Raymond Duch
March 30, 2021

Graphic: how vaccines should be allocated, according to the public
Logo: Springer Link
How should a safe and effective COVID-19 vaccine be allocated? Health economists need to be ready to take the baton

Laurence S. J. Roope, John Buckell, Frauke Becker, Paolo Candio, Mara Violato, Jody L. Sindelar, Adrian Barnett, Raymond Duch & Philip M. Clarke
September 3, 2020


➤ Papers

Cash versus Lotteries: COVID-19 Vaccine Incentives Experiment

Raymond M. Duch, Adrian Barnett, Maciej Filipek, Laurence Roope, Mara Violato, Philip Clarke
July 28, 2021

CANDOUR Pre-Registration: COVID-19 Vaccine Preference and Opinion Survey

Philip Clarke, Raymond M. Duch, Laurence Roope & Mara Violato
December 14, 2020